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Neurosurgery is the discipline in medicine that focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous system. It is a surgical procedure that uses invasive techniques to diagnose, investigate and/or treat a neurological disorder, disease or injury. For example, to remove a brain tumour or insert a deep brain stimulation device. Neurosurgery is the surgical specialty that deals with the nervous system, including the brain, spinal cord and nerves of the body. A neurosurgeon, who may also be referred to as a brain surgeon, is a specialist who has received extensive training in general surgery.
A neurological disorder is any disorder of the body nervous system. Structural, biochemical or electrical abnormalities in the brain, spinal cord or other nerves can result in a range of symptoms. Examples of symptoms include paralysis, muscle weakness, poor coordination, loss of sensation, seizures, confusion, pain and altered levels of consciousness. Neurology is a medical specialty dealing with disorders of the nervous system. Specifically, it deals with the diagnosis and treatment of all categories of disease involving the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems, including their coverings, blood vessels, and all effected tissue, such as muscles.
The Spine is a complex structure, balancing flexibility and strength. Even the smallest change in the structure of the spine can lead to significant disability and pain creating lot of problems. Spinal Neurosurgery is the surgical specialization that treats diseases and disorders of the spinal cord. Back pain can sometimes produce neurological symptoms such as numbness, muscle weakness, and loss of bowel and bladder control due to dysfunction at the nerve root. These symptoms are indicators that Spinal neurosurgery is required to treat the underlying cause of back pain as opposed to conservative treatments. Some of these treatments include Spinal Decompression, Spinal Neurofibroma, Disc Arthoblasty, Microdisectomy. These advanced techniques in the Neurosurgical field can help us to cure even the complex sort of disorders.
A stroke is a “brain attack”. It occurs when blood flow to an area of brain is cut off. When this happens, brain cells are deprived of oxygen and begin to die. When brain cells die during a stroke, abilities controlled by that area of the brain such as memory and muscle control are lost. Stroke is a disease that affects the arteries leading to and within the brain. It is the No. 5 cause of death and a leading cause of disability in the United States. A stroke occurs when a blood vessel that carries oxygen and nutrients to the brain is either blocked by a clot or bursts (or ruptures). When that happens, part of the brain cannot get the blood (and oxygen) it needs, so it and brain cells die.
Gliomas are brain tumours starting in the glial cells. Gliomas can be low grade (slow growing) or high grade (fast growing). The position of the tumour is also very important. Glioma is a type of tumor that occurs in the brain and spinal cord. Gliomas begin in the gluey supportive cells (glial cells) that surround nerve cells and help them function. The symptoms, prognosis, and treatment of a glioma depend on the person’s age, the exact type of tumor, and the location of the tumor within the brain.
Pediatric Neurology and Surgery or child Neurology and Surgery refers to a specialized branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and management of neurological conditions in neonates (new-borns), infants, children and adolescents. The discipline of child neurology encompasses diseases and disorders of the spinal cord, brain, peripheral nervous system, autonomic nervous system, muscles and blood vessels that affect individuals in these age groups.
Neurosurgery is a medical specialty concerned with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of patients with injury or diseases/disorders of the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves inner all parts of the body. A physician who specializes in neurosurgery is known as Neurosurgeon they are not only brain surgeons, but they can medically trained neurosurgical specialists who can also help patients suffering from back and neck pain as well as other illnesses ranging from trigeminal neuralgia to head injury and Parkinson's disease.
Neuro-oncology is a unique, developing neurologic subspecialty that combines many aspects of neurology with those of cancer biology. The neuro-oncologist is expert in both the diagnosis and management of primary brain tumors and neurologic complications of cancer. A career in neuro-oncology presents opportunities to utilize a multidisciplinary team approach and the application of cutting-edge technology toward patient treatment while providing compassionate patient care. Neuro-oncology can trace its modern origins to the 1970s, when the first therapeutic trials were begun. The treatment and management of primary brain tumors is now a rapidly evolving field.
Neurological rehabilitation (rehab) is a doctor-supervised program designed for people with diseases, injury, or disorders of the nervous system. Neurological rehab can often improve function, reduce symptoms, and improve the well-being of the patient. It is designed to help treat patients with nervous system or neurological diseases. Rehabilitation aims to increase function, reduce debilitating symptoms, and improve a patient’s quality of life.
Neuroradiology is a subspecialty of the radiology concerning the diagnosis and characterization of the abnormalities associated with the central and peripheral nervous system, head, neck, and spine using the medical imaging techniques. Neuroradiology uses the techniques of neuroimaging for the direct or indirect image of the structure and function of the nervous system with the minimal invasion and Physicians who specialize in the execution and elucidation of neuroimaging in the clinical setting are known as neuroradiologists
There is a noticeable transformation in Neuroscience Research due to the rapid advancement of Neuroimaging methodology and availability. The areas of development include functional MRI (fMRI), Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM), Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI), Electroencephalography (EEG), Magneto Encephalography (MEG), Optical Imaging, and Positron Emission Tomography (PET). It also includes the important regions like Machine learning, Computational models and Multi-modal imaging.
The Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology (BCN) area with the Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences focuses on investigating the biological basis for behavior and cognition. The faculty affiliated with this training area engage in NIH- and NSF-funded research using both humans and animals as they address topics ranging from human language to learning and memory to models of disorders.
A neuropsychologist is a psychologist who specialises in the functions of the brain, particularly memory, concentration and problem solving. Their work involves testing and assessing the psychological problems people may experience following an injury or neurological disorder, and helping them in their rehabilitation.
Neuropsychiatrists and neuropsychologists specialise in treating patients with neurological conditions and helping them to deal with the psychological effects of illness or injury
Neurotoxicology deals with the adverse effects of naturally occurring and synthetic chemical agents (Neurotoxins) on the structure or function of the nervous system. Neurotoxicology is a form of toxicity in which a biological, chemical, or physical agent produces an adverse effect on the structure or function of the central and/or peripheral nervous system. Neurotoxicity refers to ‘any form of substance-induced dysfunction of the nervous system’. This broad definition already implies that neurotoxicity can be studied from many different perspectives, including neurobehavior, neurodevelopment, neurophysiology, neuropathology and neurochemistry. Neurochemistry is the study of chemicals, including neurotransmitters and other molecules such as psychopharmaceuticals and neuropeptides, that control and influence the physiology of the nervous system.
Neuroimmunology is the study of crosstalk between the central nervous system and immune system of the body. Neuroimmunology as a separate discipline has its roots in the fields of neurology, neuroscience and immunology. Neuroimmunology, the study of the interaction between our central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord) and our immune system, melds these two disciplines. While neuroimmunologists originally focused on classical neuroinflammatory disorders, such as multiple sclerosis and infections, there is strong evidence to suggest that the immune response contributes to genetic white matter disorders, epilepsy, neurodegenerative diseases, neuropsychiatric disorders, peripheral nervous system and neuro-oncological conditions, as well as ageing.
Neuropharmacology is the study of the effects of drugs on the nervous system, with the goal of developing compounds that offer therapeutic benefit in humans with psychiatric and neurological disease. It is focused on the development of compounds which may be of benefit to individuals who suffer from neurological or psychiatric illness. We believe that an understanding of a drug’s action requires an integrated knowledge of the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which the drug exerts its effects upon brain circuitry and ultimately human behaviour.
Neuropathology is the study of disease of nervous system tissue, usually in the form of either small surgical biopsies or whole-body autopsies. Neuropathologists usually work in a department of anatomic pathology, but work closely with the clinical disciplines of neurology, and neurosurgery, which often depend on neuropathology for a diagnosis.
Neurophysiology could be a medical method that plans to assist and recovery from system injury. Recovery is associate degree entrance to decrease sensory system abscesses during this manner increasing the neural repair. Neural recovery program is associate degree expected to create heedfulness regarding the medical specialty issue and its conclusion.
The nervous system has two different major parts. The two parts are the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous. The central nervous system or the CNS contains the brain and the spinal cord. All together, the brain and the spinal cord serve the nervous system's command station. When the sensory input reaches the CNS, the spinal cord and the brain figure outs what it exactly means. After, they quickly orders out the body parts that needs to move faster.
The PNS has two important parts. They are the motor division and the sensory division. The sensory division collects the impulses from the sensory receptors in areas like skin, muscles, and organs, and also carries those impulses through the nerves to the CNS. The motor division collects the outgoing messages from the CNS and delivers them to the appropriate body organs, telling them what to do. The motor division does the opposite from the sensory division.
The brain is the most complicated organ in our body. Every area has a specific function that controls everything that we do. For years, doctors have had a rough map of the brain, but never to the degree that they could operate and know for sure how to avoid every critical portion since each person’s brain are unique, causing variations in the map. This fact, combined with the sheer complexity of the brain, has challenged neurosurgeons for years.
A biomarker is a characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biological processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention. Biomarkers for neurological diseases used to be few and far between, but better technology is making it easier for researchers to track brain health by measuring molecules. This means less invasive testing, earlier diagnosis, faster drug development, and—hopefully—more effective treatments.
Neurosurgery is an important part of medicine, working to protect, heal and treat the brain. There are many reasons an individual may need a neurosurgeon, ranging from an issue present at birth to treating a spinal cord injury caused by trauma or even to decrease the damage caused by a stroke. The Clinical Neurological nursing program provides patient-centred care to acute neurology and neurosurgical patients. Specialty care in neurology includes Epilepsy, Movement Disorders, Neuromuscular Disorders, Regional Stroke Program, Regional Multiple Sclerosis Clinic, and Neuro-Critical Care. Neurosurgery Care includes Neurovascular, Neuro-oncology, Spinal Surgery, Spinal Cord Injury, Head Injury, and Epilepsy Surgery.
Trauma is the response to a deeply distressing or disturbing event that overwhelms an individual’s ability to cope causes feelings of helplessness, diminishes their sense of self and their ability to feel the full range of emotions and experiences. In general, trauma can be defined as a psychological, emotional response to an event or an experience that is deeply distressing or disturbing. When loosely applied, this trauma definition can refer to something upsetting, such as being involved in an accident, having an illness or injury, losing a loved one, or going through a divorce.
Treatment of psychological and neurological issues, it combined and named as Neuro-therapeutics.Inspite surgical methods other therapeutics is being used for the problems like neural damage and other neuropsychological,neuropharmacological issues.
Clinical trials are experiments or observations done in clinical research. Clinical trials testing new treatments are divided into different stages, called phases. The earliest phase trials may look at whether a drug is safe or the side effects it causes. Later phase trials aim to test whether a new treatment is better than existing treatments. Clinical trials are research studies performed in people that are aimed at evaluating a medical, surgical, or behavioral intervention. They are the primary way that researchers find out if a new treatment, like a new drug or diet or medical device (for example, a pacemaker) is safe and effective in people. Often a clinical trial is used to learn if a new treatment is more effective and/or has less harmful side effects than the standard treatment.